blood cell diseases

blood cell diseases

blood cell diseases

Blood is the life-giving fluid, transporting oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues. It is connective tissue, proteinaceous in nature. Blood consists of various components including fluid plasma and blood cells. 

The blood cells comprise the erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes). Diseases of the blood can affect one or all of the blood cells. Other kinds of blood diseases affect proteins and chemicals in the plasma that are responsible for clotting.

The most common condition affecting red blood cells is Anemia. It denotes a lower-than-normal count of red blood cells in the body. It also leads to a reduced amount of Hemoglobin in the blood. 

The symptoms of anemia include pale skin, fatigue, poor growth rate in children, and increased heart beat rate. Anemia is primarily caused due to reduced production of red blood cells and unusually rapid red blood cell destruction rate. Reduced production of red blood cells can be due to Lead poisoning and Iron deficiency. 

Children suffering from Cancer or HIV infection often tend to develop anemia as a complication of their illness. Disorders of the kidney can lead to Anemia.

The kidney produces Erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the marrow. Increased red blood cell destruction can be due to G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that prevents the destruction of red blood cells by the action of chemicals in food and medicines.

 Blood cell destruction is also caused due to Sickle Cell Anemia and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

Diseases of the White Blood Cells and Platelets

Neutropenia occurs when there is not enough amount of a certain type of white blood cell to protect the body against bacterial infections.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that affects lymphocytes that protect against infection. Infection with this virus results in AIDS, where the body becomes prone to a host of diseases and infections. Leukemia is the cancer of the white blood cells

Thrombocytopenia denotes a lower-than-normal amount of platelets in the body. 

It occurs due to the intake of certain drugs or some infections or Leukemia when the body uses more platelets.

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